Bilateral vocal cord paralysis
Iatrogenic forms: Thyroidectomy (50%), surgical trauma (44%), intubation (15%), hyperextension of the neck, cuff pressure compression of recurrent laryngeal nerve, nasogastric tube syndrome and brachial plexus nerve block.
Neurological disorders: One fifth of cases is due to neurological disorders such as poliomyelitis, IPD, MSA, stroke, GBS, MS and neoplasm.
Neoplastic disease: Tumors of the neck and mediastinum account for less than 10%.
Miscellaneous: Foreign bodies, bilateral internal carotid artery dissection, bilateral aneurysm of internal carotid externa, trauma, cricoarytenoiditis, cervical hyperostosis, RA, gout, ankylosing spondilitis, Reiter syndrome, Crohn disease, SLE, mumps, Wegener granulomatosis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, TB, syphilis, gastroesophagal reflux and idiopathic forms account for approximately 10%.